Introducing the CDR Meta-Map on Policy
Introducing the CDR Meta-Map on Policy

During the Carbon Unbound Europe conference in London, October 2023, the Puro Team hosted a campfire session on the policy mechanisms which may enable demand for durable carbon removal. Today, we're excited to share our findings, highlighting the strides made by governments, international organizations, and voluntary rule-setters in shaping certification frameworks, compliance markets, corporate reporting on greenhouse gas emissions, and environmental claims legislation. This information is now available in a downloadable CDR Meta-Map on Policy. It's important to note that this map is a work in progress and open to amendments. We actively seek feedback and aim to spark discussions about the policy mechanisms that will steer the global embrace of durable carbon removal. Thank you to all contributors who made this resource possible. 

Download CDR Meta-Map on policy

The data behind the meta-map 

We haven’t included targets or political communications nor research and development funds, or innovation funds. We refer to the policy tracker from Carbon Gap, USA mapping from Carbonfuture, we’ve also worked with colleagues at Carbon Unbound Europe, Climate Policy Radar, policy briefs from Carbon Business Council and The background map is from the World Resources Institute setting out which countries have durable carbon removals in their Long Term Strategies. The definition of durable carbon removal is taken from the IPCC and covers biochar, Bio-Energy Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS), Direct Air Capture and Storage (DACS) and Enhanced Rock Weathering (ERW). The table is an incomplete list of policies to enable demand for durable carbon removals, we look forward to adding to this list and hearing your feedback.

The role of policy to scale demand for durable carbon removals 
  • believes that trust should be built through methodologies which set the rules for how to certify carbon removal credits, building on the methods available in the voluntary carbon markets subject to quality criteria set by policy makers. 
  • We also support legislation which gives clarity on corporate reporting for greenhouse gas emissions, and regulates corporate environmental claims. Companies should have clear plans on how they intend to reach net-zero, and make sure consumers know what they are buying. 
  • We ask that residual emissions be neutralised with durable carbon removal stored for at least 100 years, and that companies have interim neutralisation milestones before they reach net-zero emissions in the longer te
Where? Initiative  Status Methods included Relevance for durable carbon removals
Australia Australia – Climate Active Implemented and under reviewTo be reviewedIn the voluntary “Climate Active” system, carbon dioxide removal through forestry, soil projects is permitted on a restricted basis by Climate Active when meeting carbon neutrality goals. The priority remains cutting an organization's own emissions wherever possible.  This voluntary mechanism is under review and could be opened up to more durable carbon removal methods.    
Australia Australia Carbon Credit Usage (ACCU) scheme Implemented and under reviewBECCS, DACS. Australia's ACCU scheme does incorporate some forms of carbon dioxide removal, especially via land sector projects and geological storage. But it remains more focused on reducing emissions rather than removing existing CO2. The Clean Energy Regulator has identified biochar as an area for future investigation. 
CanadaInvestment Tax CreditImplemented  DACSRules for Canada's GHG offset system are being designed to enable certifying direct air capture projects. 
CanadaGreenhouse Gas Offset Credit SystemIn implementation  DACSRules for Canada's GHG offset system are being designed to enable certifying direct air capture projects. 
EUCarbon Removal Certification FrameworkProposed and under political negotiation  Wide in scope – to be seen which methodologies are developed. could be a certification scheme under this regulation and it paves the way to create “units” to recognise different types of carbon removals.  The use case is not yet clear. 
EUEmissions Trading SystemImplemented and under review Not yet known The EU Commission needs to consider, “how negative emissions resulting from greenhouse gases that are removed from the atmosphere and safely and permanently stored could be accounted for and how those negative emissions could be covered by emissions trading, if appropriate, including a clear scope and strict criteria for such coverage, and safeguards to ensure that such removals do not offset necessary emission reductions in accordance with Union climate targets.  
EUEmpowering consumers for the green transitionBeing implemented, expected implementation in 2025 N/A focused on carbon credit usageIncludes unfair claims based on greenhouse gas emissions offsetting in the list of banned commercial practices. This means that traders will not be able to claim that a product has a neutral, reduced or improved environmental impact, based on unverified offsetting programmes.  Final text awaited for what is officially agreed. 
EUCorporate Sustainability Reporting Directive Political negotiationN/A focused on carbon credit usage User claims and transparency on what types of carbon credits are used to meet corporate claims. Could be a route to differentiate on durability for carbon removals.
EUNet-Zero Industry ActPolitical negotiation      Carbon removal/technical sinks Carbon dioxide removal could be included in the list of net zero technologies in the scope of the Act, which is needed to achieve climate neutrality in the EU by 2050.
InternationalParis Agreement - Article 6.4 Political negotiation Methods which meet the recommendations Durable carbon removals could be included in any future market mechanism under the Paris Agreement.
InternationalParis Agreement - Article 6.2OperationalPotentially all CDR which meet certification requirements  Article 6.2 is designed to encourage bilateral, government-to-government agreements that are “consistent with guidance” written by the Parties to the Paris Agreement—but which are organized independently of the UN, between the countries themselves. International Emissions Trading Association visualisation.
InternationalCarbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA) OperationalPotentially all CDR which meet CORSIA requirements     Removals in scope and carbon-crediting programs need to apply to be eligible. First phase 2024 -2026 trades at a price of around $13/tCO2 (October 2023)
InternationalInternational Maritime Organisation – mid-term Market-based measures Political negotiation Not yet known if this is open to CDR – one to watch as the final goal is net-zero emissions.  The 2023 GHG Strategy states that a basket of candidate measure(s), delivering on the reduction targets, should be developed and finalized comprised of both: (i) a technical element, namely a goal-based marine fuel standard regulating the phased reduction of the marine fuel's GHG intensity; and (ii) an economic element, on the basis of a maritime GHG emissions pricing mechanism.
JapanJ-Credit Implemented under review Biochar The J-Credit Scheme, the government certifies the amount of greenhouse gas emissions (such as CO2) reduced or removed by sinks through efforts to introduce energy-saving devices and manage forests, as "credit.“ This scheme, which was created by expansively integrating the Domestic Credit Scheme and the Offset Credit (J-VER; Japan's verified emissions reduction) Scheme, is administered by the central government.
Luxembourg Negative Emission Tarriff (L-NET and Bill 8096) ProposedCO2 air capture and reuse, and CO2 sequestration in durable materials or geological or marine reservoirs  Introduced to create a financial aid for investments in projects related to negative emissions technologies. If adopted, it would create direct subsidies for mid-size projects in two categories: CO2 air capture and reuse, and CO2 sequestration in durable materials or geological or marine reservoirs. Inspired by the feed-in tariffs that have accelerated the spread of renewable energy in many countries, its subsidy calculation formulas include a degressive factor to boost adoption and development by rewarding early movers.
New ZealandEmissions Trading Scheme   Implemented and under review Biochar Government includes biochar under its Emissions Trading System which already has forestry in scope and there are further discussions to update this system.
NorwayReverse auction tax credit Discussed not yet proposed. DACS In 2021, the Norwegian Environment Agency proposed introducing a reverse auction tax credit system to incentivize DACCS projects. Published commentary suggests the Environment Agency may have proposed a tax credit value in the range of 5000 - 5500 NOK ($500 - $550 USD) per tonne of CO2.
SwedenReverse auction for BECCS Awaiting state aid approval BECCS  Reverse auction for BECCS – see Carbon Gap - 
UKBusiness models Discussed not yet proposed. BECCS and DACS  A Negative Emissions Contract for Difference (CfD) model to be the most effective approach to deliver our policy objectives. It would provide familiarity to investors given the use of similar frameworks in other low-carbon sectors, maximise value for money, and allow an efficient transition to a market-led framework and reduced government support over time.
UKEmissions Trading System Discussed, not yet proposed. Not yet clear

UK Gov will aim to carry out a further consultation in 2023 on the inclusion of engineered and nature-based GGRs in the UK ETS. This will address how we could design the market, what market eligibility requirements we could set and when inclusion may take place alongside 

other relevant considerations. The Climate Change Committee (CCC) have recommended that engineered removals are included in the UK ETS when they are mature. 

UKCertificationDiscussed, not yet proposed. All

Academic and industry recommendations on how the government should approach the monitoring, reporting and verification of negative emissions resulting from various greenhouse gas removal (GGR) methods. 

USA - California Low Carbon Fuel Standard ImplementedDACS 

The Low Carbon Fuel Standard is designed to decrease the carbon intensity of California's transportation fuel pool and provide an increasing range of low-carbon and renewable alternatives, which reduce petroleum dependency and achieve air quality benefits. DACS is a compliance pathway. 

USA - California Carbon Dioxide Removal Market Development Act SB308 Proposed and in political negotiation Broad range of carbon dioxide removals 

The bill directs CARB to adopt a regulation requiring high-emitting entities to purchase “negative emissions credits” to compensate for remaining emissions. Ramps from 1 percent of the source’s emissions in 2030 to 100 percent of their residual emissions by 2045, giving the state a way to ensure it achieves its net-zero emissions target. Under this law, CARB would establish rules and processes for certifying carbon dioxide removal practices that may be used to create negative emissions credits.  

USA - California Climate Corporate Data Accountability Act (CCDAA) SB253 Agreed, in implementation GHG emissions reporting 

Mandatory reporting for GHG emissions for companies.  Refers to the Greenhouse Gas Protocol. Directs the State Air Resources Board to develop regulations requiring corporations that do business in California, with annual revenues over $1 billion, to publicly disclose their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Reporting entities must provide annual disclosures for scope 1 and scope 2 emissions starting in 2026 and must report scope 3 emissions starting in 2027. 

USA - California Voluntary Carbon Market Disclosures Business Regulation Act Agreed, in implementation Reporting on environmental claims 

Will apply to a range of entities operating in California that market or sell voluntary carbon offsets, or make claims regarding the achievement of net zero emissions, carbon neutral status, or significant carbon emissions reductions. Each of these activities carries specific public disclosure requirements under the VCMDA. 

USA - federal  Federal Trade Commission Green Guide ImplementedFocused on carbon credit usage 

The Green Guides provide voluntary guidance on how to avoid deceptive environmental claims in advertising and marketing. Carbon offsets are covered under the "carbon offsets" section. 

USA - federal  Regional Direct Air Capture Hubs In implementation DACS

The Four Regional Direct Air Capture Hubs is designed to establish a program under which the Secretary shall provide funding for eligible projects that contribute to the development of four regional direct air capture hubs. 

USA - federal  2023 Farm Bill Being reviewed Biochar

The 2023 Farm Bill needs to be re-authorised in 2023, more information from the Carbon Business Council here, “Hundreds of millions of tonnes of crop residues are burnt, or left to decompose, in the U.S. annually — representing a significant re-emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. It is critical to leave some crop residues on the field to maintain soil health, however crop residues that are burnt can more beneficially be employed as feedstock for biomass carbon removal and storage (BiCRS) approaches, including biochar carbon removal (BCR),” 

USA - federal  Inflation Reduction Act  Implemented BECCS and DACS 

Up to $180/tCO2 tax credit. 

USA - federal  CDR Purchase Prize In implementation 


Biomass with carbon removal and storage 

Enhanced weathering and mineralization   

Planned or managed carbon sinks 

The CDR Purchase Pilot Prize represents the first time the United States federal government will purchase high-quality carbon removal credits from commercial-scale activities 

USA – New York State Carbon Dioxide Removal Leadership Act In political discussions 

DACS, BECCS and other methods 

New York has proposed an ambitious Carbon Dioxide Removal Leadership Act, it remains in the early stages of the legislative process. 

USA - Washington Climate Commitment Act (SB 5126)  In implementation 


The Climate Commitment Act sets a goal for Washington to achieve net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050.  It establishes a cap-and-trade program for major emitters, with auctions for tradeable carbon allowances.  The law directs the state Department of Ecology to adopt rules requiring allowance auctions to include a consigning of carbon dioxide removal credits.  Beginning in 2028, at least 5% of all auction allowance value must come from consigned carbon removal credits. 

5% of the emissions cap in 2028 equates to around 100,000 metric tons of CO2 removal credits that the state must acquire.  Eligible carbon removal approaches include direct air capture, enhanced natural sink methods like reforestation, and bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration. 

VCM rule-setters Integrity-Council for the Voluntary Carbon Market (IC-VCM) Core Carbon Principles Operational, awaiting category information 

Awaiting Category information 

Assessment framework at Program-level released. Awaiting information for which categories (methods) will be fast tracked for the first phase of assessment. 

VCM rule-setters VCM Markets Integrity Initiative – (VCMI) Claims Code of Practise Operational, awaiting more information 


At its core, the Claims Code is for companies who are seeking to make credible voluntary use of carbon credits and receive validation in the form of a VCMI Claim.  Next update on 28 November 2023 - the launch of this guidance will enable companies to begin the process of making Claims in line with VCMI’s Claims Code.  

VCM rule-setters Science-Based Targets Initiative (SBTi) – Net-Zero Standard Operational, being reviewed 

Examples include, but are not limited to: DACS, BECCS Improved soil management

From the Standard, “There is also a critical need for companies to invest in nascent GHG removal technologies (e.g., direct air capture (DAC) and storage) so that the technology is available to neutralize residual emissions at the long-term science-based target date.” 

Launching the CORC Offtake Allocation Service
Launching the CORC Offtake Allocation Service

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